Co-Design of a Trustworthy AI System in Healthcare: Deep Learning Based Skin Lesion Classifier

Steven Umbrello

This paper documents how an ethically aligned co-design methodology ensures trustworthiness in the early design phase of an artificial intelligence (AI) system component for healthcare. The system explains decisions made by deep learning networks analyzing images of skin lesions. The co-design of trustworthy AI developed here used a holistic approach rather than a static ethical checklist and required a multidisciplinary team of experts working with the AI designers and their managers. Ethical, legal, and technical issues potentially arising from the future use of the AI system were investigated. This paper is a first report on co-designing in the early design phase. Our results can also serve as guidance for other early-phase AI-similar tool developments.

Robot Care Ethics Between Autonomy and Vulnerability: Coupling Principles and Practices in Autonomous Systems for Care

Alberto Pirni, Maurizio Balistreri, Marianna Capasso, Steven Umbrello and Federica Merenda

Technological developments involving robotics and artificial intelligence devices are being employed evermore in elderly care and the healthcare sector more generally, raising ethical issues and practical questions warranting closer considerations of what we mean by “care” and, subsequently, how to design such software coherently with the chosen definition. This paper starts by critically examining the existing approaches to the ethical design of care robots provided by Aimee van Wynsberghe, who relies on the work on the ethics of care by Joan Tronto. In doing so, it suggests an alternative to their non-principled approach, an alternative suited to tackling some of the issues raised by Tronto and van Wynsberghe, while allowing for the inclusion of two orientative principles. Our proposal centres on the principles of autonomy and vulnerability, whose joint adoption we deem able to constitute an original revision of a bottom-up approach in care ethics. Conclusively, the ethical framework introduced here integrates more traditional approaches in care ethics in view of enhancing the debate regarding the ethical design of care robots under a new lens.

Value Sensitive Design to Achieve the UN SDGs with AI: A Case of Elderly Care Robots

Steven Umbrello, Marianna Capasso, Maurizio Balistreri, Alberto Pini & Federica Merenda

Healthcare is becoming increasingly automated with the development and deployment of care robots. There are many benefits to care robots but they also pose many challenging ethical issues. This paper takes care robots for the elderly as the subject of analysis, building on previous literature in the domain of the ethics and design of care robots. Using the value sensitive design (VSD) approach to technology design, this paper extends its application to care robots by integrating the values of care, values that are specific to AI, and higher-scale values such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The ethical issues specific to care robots for the elderly are discussed at length alongside examples of specific design requirements that work to ameliorate these ethical concerns.

Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Contextual Nature of Hors de Combat Status

Autonomous weapons systems (AWS), sometimes referred to as “killer robots”, are receiving ever more attention, both in public discourse as well as by scholars and policymakers. Much of this interest is connected to emerging ethical and legal problems linked to increasing autonomy in weapons systems, but there is a general underappreciation for the ways in which existing law might impact on these new technologies.

20 maggio 2021

In this paper, we argue that as AWS become more sophisticated and increasingly more capable than flesh-and-blood soldiers, it will increasingly be the case that such soldiers are “in the power” of those AWS which fight against them. This implies that such soldiers ought to be considered hors de combat, and not targeted. In arguing for this point, we draw out a broader conclusion regarding hors de combat status, namely that it must be viewed contextually, with close reference to the capabilities of combatants on both sides of any discreet engagement. Given this point, and the fact that AWS may come in many shapes and sizes, and can be made for many different missions, we argue that each particular AWS will likely need its own standard for when enemy soldiers are deemed hors de combat. We conclude by examining how these nuanced views of hors de combat status might impact on meaningful human control of AWS.

Robotic vision and embodiment. A social and educative hypothesis of experience with robots

Renato Grimaldi, Lorenzo Denicolai, Sandro Brignone, Silvia Palmieri

Abstract. The proposal is based on considering the robot (social and educational) as a medium; in this way and through it, we could be in relationship with the environment. Particularly, we want to concentrate on the robotic vision and how it could be useful as mediator in emergency contexts, such as current pandemic COVID-19. We hypothesize that the human-robotics relationship can allow the co- built of several visual, social, performative, and meaningful experiences. The paper aims to highlight the theoretical framework and some empirical and heuristic guidelines to use educative robots in this modality, as a methodology to enhance visual, expressive and communicative competences.

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17 maggio 2021

Designing AI for Explainability and Verifiability: A Value Sensitive Design Approach to Avoid Artificial Stupidity in Autonomous Vehicles

One of the primary, if not most critical, difficulties in the design and implementation of autonomous systems is the black-boxed nature of the decision-making structures and logical pathways. How human values are embodied and actualised in situ may ultimately prove to be harmful if not outright recalcitrant. [...]

15 maggio 2021


Insegnare i big data fin dalla scuola primaria per una vera cittadinanza digitale

Renato Grimaldi

I risultati di una sperimentazione condotta dal CSI Piemonte sullo sviluppo delle competenze digitali nella scuola primaria

Pepper, come un social robot può contribuire all’anamnesi durante la campagna anti Covid-19

Renato Grimaldi, Sandro Brignone, Antonio Falco, Silvia Palmieri

Il Laboratorio di simulazione del comportamento e robotica educativa “Luciano Gallino” (Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione, Università di Torino) ha sperimentato un’intervista nella quale Pepper raccoglie dati durante un protocollo di anamnesi svolto prima della somministrazione del vaccino anti-Covid-19

Che cos'è l'eccellenza

Eccellenza significa potenziare il dipartimento nei settori in cui è attualmente già leader e promuovere il miglioramento delle aree disciplinari più deboli, grazie alla sinergia di risorse ottenute, al reclutamento di personale docente, alla partecipazione al progetto del Centro bibliotecario umanistico, in considerazione del ruolo fondamentale che le fonti bibliografiche e gli archivi ricoprono nella ricerca umanistica, e, infine, anche grazie anche all'internazionalizzazione incentrata sugli scambi di studenti, dottorandi e professori, che andrà a rafforzare la politica del Dipartimento perseguita già da alcuni anni proprio in questa direzione.

Eccellenza vuol dire anche rispondere ai cambiamenti sociali e tecnologici migliorando l'interazione con gli stakeholders tradizionali e non, mediante il potenziamento del Laboratorio Quazza e la realizzazione del Laboratorio di Innovazione in Filosofia e Scienze dell'Educazione (LIFE) per mirare allo studio e all'interazione con la società.

L'eccellenza in 10 parole chiave!